4. At what stage in the Audit Process is Professional Skepticism necessary?

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Professional Skepticism is relevant and required throughout the audit, despite the fact that it is not mentioned in every ISA. For example:

1) Engagement Acceptance – For instance, while assessing the integrity of principal owners and management.

2) Identifying and Assessing Risks of Material Misstatement – For example, when:

  • Performing risk assessment procedures (including the engagement team discussion on the susceptibility of the entity’s financial statements to material misstatement, as discussed previously).
  • Revising the auditor’s assessment of the Risks of Material Misstatement and making changes to the further planned audit procedures as needed, such as when new information contradicts the audit evidence on which the original assessment was based, or when the auditor becomes aware of changes in circumstances, new information, or a change in his or her understanding of the entity and how it works as a result of performing further audits.


1) 项目接受时 [意思就是说 – 接受委任] – 举例,在评估主要所有者和管理层的诚信时;

2) 识别和评估重大错报的风险时 – 举例,当在:

  • 执行风险评估程序(包括项目团队对实体财务报表对于重大错报的敏感性的讨论,如前所述)。
  • 调整审计师对重大错报风险 [Risks of Material Misstatement] 的评估,及进一步对早已计划的审计程序进行修改,如有需要。举例,当新的信息与最初评估所依据的审计证据相矛盾时,或当审计师意识到情况的变化、新的信息,或在执行深入审计后对该实体及其运作方式的理解发生变化时。

3) Designing the nature, timing, and scope of further audit procedures that align with the risks of material misstatement and evaluating audit evidence. For example, when:

  • Considering, areas with higher estimated risks, the need to get more evidence or evidence that is more relevant or reliable, such as by putting more emphasis on gathering proof from third parties or from several independent sources.
  • Designing and carrying out substantive analytical procedures, such as evaluating the reliability of data from which the auditor’s expectation is developed, and when identifying and investigating fluctuations or relationships that are inconsistent with other relevant information or that differ from expected values by a significant amount. The auditor’s expectations are an essential part of evaluating the results of analytical procedures and questioning management’s explanations for results that don’t match what was expected.
  • Dealing with situations like when management refuses to let the auditor send a confirmation request.

4) Forming an Opinion on whether the financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with the Applicable Financial Reporting Framework – For example, when:

  • Concluding about whether reasonable assurance was obtained and whether sufficient appropriate audit evidence was obtained to support such conclusion.
  • Considering what will happen to the auditor’s opinion if unable to gather necessary audit evidence.
  • Evaluating whether Financial Statements that are prepared in accordance with a Fair Presentation Framework achieve fair presentation, considering both

(i) the overall presentation, structure, and content of the financial statements and

(ii) whether the Financial Statements, including the related notes, represent the underlying transactions and events in a manner that achieve fair presentation


  • 考虑到,估计风险较高的领域,需要获得更多的证据或更相关或更可靠的证据,举例,更强调从第三方或多个独立来源收集证据。
  • 设计和执行实质性的分析程序 [substantive analytical procedures],包括在评估时产生审计师期望的数据的可靠性,以及当识别和调查与其他相关信息不一致或与预期值有很大差异波动或关系。在评估分析程序(Analytical procedure)和质疑管理层对偏离预期的解释结果时,审计师的期望起着重要的作用。
  • 处理诸如管理层拒绝让审计师发送确认请求的情况。

4) 就财务报表在所有重大方面,是否按照适用的财务报告框架 [Applicable Financial Reporting Framework] 的编制而形成意见 — 举例,当。

  • 就是否获得了合理的保证以及是否获得了足够且适当的审计证据来支持这一结论。
  • 考虑如果无法收集到必要的审计证据,审计师的意见会有什么影响。
  • 评估按照公允列报框架 [Fair Presentation Framework] 编制的财务报表,是否实现了公允列报,在考虑到

(i) 财务报表的整体表述、结构和内容,以及

(ii) 财务报表,包括相关附注,是否以实现公允列报的方式反映了基本交易和事件。

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